In foraging online, I’ve discovered a number on links to plant identification and information sites. In the effort to share I have posted these links below. As you can see, it isn’t an exhaustive list. These are materials that I and my student research assistants use regularly to check spellings of scientific names, determine if native or not, and verify growth form. Some of the sites give additional information about range, habitat, and use value to humans and other species.
World Collections Websites
- Kew Gardens – Plants of the World online – robust use section, particularly for medicines. Not a big focus on common names.
- Global Plants on JSTOR – digitized global collections, historic materials, specimens, herbaria
- iDigBio – Integrated Digitized Biocollections Homepage – more than just plants, although plants dominate the media records
- iDigBio Portal – online specimen record access
- Pl@ntUse – online wiki with over 50,000 plant species
- Botanic Garden Meise – BR Herbarium Catalogue – the herbarium has three main geographical divisions, the African (Central Africa focus), Belgian and General Collections
- Missouri Botanical Gardens
Southern Africa Focused Websites
- South African National Biodiversity Institute
- Flora of Mozambique
- Flora of Zimbabwe
- Flora of Botswana
- Plants of Namibia (Oxford)
- Flora of Zambia
- Swaziland’s Flora Database
- Dressler, S., Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. 2014 + [continously updated]. African Plants – A Photo Guide
If you know of or regularly use other related websites, please send along. I would be happy to add to our list.
Summer has finally started, now that my grades are in. This summer my focus is back on green things, plants in particular. I am a terrible gardener, and would most likely make a bad farmer, but I love to forage. Sometimes for food, sometimes to collect for fun or research, and sometimes just for the fun of identifying old friends outdoors. Wild plants, mushrooms, invertebrates, fossils… I can spend an entire day bent over scanning the ground or neck stretched back scanning above, and never get bored. After a few weeks of this, I can spot species – well at least trees and flowers – driving by at 55mph. It might not be the most useful skill in a globalized world, but it’s good for impressing drivers.
My research this summer is taking me back to old datasets – opening old files of plant photos, botanical surveys, fieldnotes, and interviews with livelihood experts on how they use and manage wild plants. Foraging of a sort on data collected from foragers in the foraged landscape of southern Mozambique. I’m also foraging plant knowledge from online archives and the digitized reports, surveys, and dissertations I’ve collected about this same region. What wild plants do people use? What parts of the plants are important? For what purposes? How do they manage these plants, and the habitats where they are found, for long-term, sustainable use? How do peoples’ preferences and livelihood activities influence where the plants are found? Is the plant diversity (presence, abundance, diversity) in places where people live similar or different to that of nearby protected areas? Why might that be? These are just some of the questions I am thinking about as I attempt to synthesize ecological and ethnographic research results.
But why is this work important? As the human population grows, we are breaching our planet’s protective boundaries and find ourselves in the midst of the 6th great extinction. We are creating this extensive biodiversity loss through overexploitation of resources, expansion of agricultural production, habitat modification, and increasing urbanization to support rapid population growth, as well as invasive species, pollution, and climate change (among other reasons). At the same time, we depend on other living beings – plants included – to survive. Life on Earth will survive – we’ve had 5 previous extinction events – but will it be a place where we Homo sapiens can live? Want to live? As much as I dream of interstellar travel, it won’t be me going to the stars, and we shouldn’t leave behind a planet that looks like a sack of unrecyclable garbage. Today or in the future.
My overarching research question asks, can biodiversity and ecosystem services be supported and maintained in landscapes where people live and work, i.e. in so-called human-modified landscapes (HMLs)? I’ve been interested in this question since I started graduate school. Well, technically since I was old enough to understand that when the farmer up the road in NNY plows their field, it changes the kinds of plants and animals you find in the field. Where I work in sub-Saharan Africa, this question must be definitively answered in the next decade if the species and ecosystem services that people depend upon, and the iconic plants and animals we associate with this continent, are to survive this century and beyond. Only 12% of sub-Saharan Africa landscapes have protected area status at present. Increasingly, ecologists and conservation managers are asking whether measures to support and maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services can be undertaken in HMLs, the other 88%.
Anthropologists, and other social scientists, working with native peoples across sub-Saharan Africa have documented an extensive range of traditional ecological knowledge and environmental management practices that allow communities to access and use natural resources, often plant species, for livelihood production sustainably in HMLs. Their research shows how daily household needs for hundreds of years have guaranteed that nearly every plant species finds some use as food, fodder, medicine, construction materials, hunting and fishing gear, clothing, household goods and tools, ritual items, and/or fuelwood. While modern materials may provide excellent substitutes, personal preferences, tradition, and, most significantly, poverty help preserve the traditional ecological knowledge people need to access and use wild plant species effectively and sustainably.
Interdisciplinary synthesis of ecological data with ethnographic research on traditional ecological knowledge and environmental management practices is a growing area of interest for both biophysical and social scientists. To date, botanical data collection in sub-Saharan Africa has focused primarily on diversity assessments in protected areas for ecological research and conservation management purposes. Ethnographic research, like that described previously, has not always been integrated into conservation planning and policy. Synthesis work becomes increasingly necessary as we confront threats like habitat loss and modification, overexploitation, pollution, and climate change, and seek ways to reduce, mitigate and eliminate their impacts on our planet’s diverse human and non-human communities.
- Maxwell, S., R. Fuller, T. Brooks, and J. Watson (2016) The ravages of guns, nets, and bulldozers. Nature 536: 143-145.
- Midgley, G. F. and W.J. Bond (2015). Future of African terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems under anthropogenic climate change. Nature Climate Change 5(9): 823-829.
- Shackleton, S. E., C. M. Shackleton, T. R. Netshiluvhi, B. S. Geach, A. Ballance, and D. Fairbanks (2002). Use patterns and value of savanna resources in three rural villages in South Africa. Economic Botany 56(2): 130-146.
- Shaffer, L. J. (2009) Human-environment interactions on a coastal forest-savanna mosaic in southern Mozambique. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia.
- Trimble, M and R van Aarde (2014) Supporting conservation with biodiversity research in sub-Saharan Africa’s human-modified landscapes. Biodiversity Conservation 23: 2345-2369.
It is amazing what you can get accomplished at work when you all is quiet and distractions are at a minimum. This past summer I collected some networked type data. I asked folks at my field site in southern Mozambique to describe the social-ecological system in which they live and how it all connects together. The interviews are part of a longer-term (I hope) project to map/describe the savanna social-ecological system (SES) of southern Mozambique from the perspective of the people who live and work there. Maps can then be used as a focal point for discussions about key elements of SES sustainability, building long-term adaptive capacity, locating best intervention sites, identifying risk and uncertainty, potential tipping points, etc.. I got the idea from a paper I read about a Turkish team of environmental scientists who used interviews, cognitive mapping, and graph theory to construct maps of a local lake ecosystem from the perspective of the stakeholders. They used their mapping method to run policy simulations and facilitate the creation of a participatory environmental management plan.
- Özesmi, U., & Özesmi, S. L. (2004). Ecological models based on people’s knowledge: a multi-step fuzzy cognitive mapping approach. Ecological Modelling, 176(1), 43-64.
Özesmi, U., & OeZESMI, S. (2003). A participatory approach to ecosystem conservation: fuzzy cognitive maps and stakeholder group analysis in Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Environmental Management, 31(4), 0518-0531.
This afternoon I finally got a chance to play with my data. It has taken me this long to get to it because I first had to learn how to use the software analysis program, Gephi. Learning new software, at least for me, takes time, solitude, and a lot of button pushing. I make a mess, delete, start over, delete, repeat et nauseum. Basically, having interruptions (student or otherwise), or at least the potential for them, does not make for a good learning environment for me.
Gephi is relatively easy, particularly if you want to download large datasets or use the datasets they give you – which are aimed at social network analysis. However, I chose Gephi because it allows you to look at other sorts of networked data. Including data like mine, linked social-ecological system elements drawn from TEK interviews. But to do this I had to figure out how to configure a data set for importing into the software. Surprisingly, Gephi doesn’t have a tutorial on how to put together a basic .csv (comma delimited) file for importing into their program. I guess they assume everyone who uses this open source software is in the know.Thank goodness for Literature Geek (a.k.a. Amanda Visconti) and History Blogger. Both researchers have provided detailed instructions about setting up basic .csv data files in Excel for use in Gephi.
- Literature Geek. 9 Sept 2013. Get Your Data into Gephi: A Quick and Basic Tutorial. Accessed 8 Jan 2015.
- History Blogger. 17 Aug 2013. Getting Started With Gephi. Accessed 8 Jan 2015.
So here are the initial results from a single mapping interview.
First some translation and the legend. A machamba is the local Ronga word for agricultural field and esteiras are floor mats handmade from Cyperus papyrus stalks. The colors denote different types of capital: green for natural capital, red for human capital, and blue for infrastructure. The purple denotes a process rather than a type of capital (I haven’t yet figured out what to do with this). I enlarged the nodes for trees and bees because my informant told me at the end of the interview that these elements were “super important for the life of the community.” The enlarged nodes of hospital, electricity and machamba show that they are sustainable elements, while fire and charcoal are unsustainable elements in this SES. I provided weights, based on the perceived strength of connections, for each of the edges but they didn’t come out so well – particularly for elements that are connected but there isn’t really any perceived connection strength like charcoal and esteiras (both household money-making activities). There were also negative weights given to connections between elements that were perceived as bad. I’d like to figure out how to show good versus bad connections too.
At this point, I am still playing. While I plan to create individual maps for each informant, my goal is to eventually link all the maps together. The interviews were long but people provided a whole lot of very detailed information. I’m looking forward to seeing more results from my playdays.