Responding to a changing fieldwork situation
A good field researcher is relatively flexible and plans for the inevitable change of plans. You still try to accomplish what you planned for – particularly when funding is attached. However, ethnographic fieldwork is not bench laboratory work. There is no real control, no do-overs, and your study subjects talk back. This past summer I went to the field expecting to explore indicators of climate change, even though I wrote my research questions to be open to the possibility of discovering other sorts of environmental change indicators. And while I did get to ask a few questions about responses to climate change, most local residents wanted to talk about elephants. So I did. It was a risk to go off “script”, but given the stakes for my friends and others living in this place, a risk I think worth taking.
I think this seemingly abrupt change of plans initially made Jordan, my graduate assistant, uncomfortable. However, as I said there was some flexibility built into my research plan. When anthropologists go to the field to work with people, that means we work with them where they are. Pushing and pursuing questions that have no relevance makes immediate research difficult, and future research darn near impossible. This is something they don’t tell you in school (and why pilot studies are so important). The ongoing human-elephant conflict at my field site in Mozambique has entered a new phase, and as such, definitely constitutes a major environmental change to the social-ecological system. Jordan finally got it when during one of her malaria interviews a woman told her that folks in the community wouldn’t even be speaking to her if I weren’t present. They knew me and I was asking relevant questions (despite my anxiety that this wasn’t going to pan out). Right now, their focus and attention was on the elephants raiding their agricultural fields not malaria. The health clinic in Salamanga provides free treatment for malaria so this wasn’t really an issue. Not having food to eat was an issue.
This fall seven anthropology students are working with Jordan and I to code our summer interviews, field notes, and digital images. I can’t take them to the field with me and given the elephant issue that might not be wise anyway. However, they can learn how to use basic ethnographic tools and we are getting a serious lot of data organized in preparation for full analysis. They will also help with some of the analysis, but the primary goal is to provide some hands on training on what it is that anthropologists actually do. One of the first products we will produce is a report on the state of the human-elephant conflict in Matutuine District based on the data we collected this summer. This will be sent to various Mozambican government agencies and the local communities. Report writing is an important part of applied anthropology. I would also like to put together a short piece for Mozambican newspapers, and maybe something on living with charismatic megafauna for American newspapers. Elephants are one of the coolest animals ever, but they are also incredibly destructive if they are running loose in your maize and cassava fields.
We had a lot of visual data this summer – mine and some from local photographers who are participating in a PhotoVoice project documenting local changes to the environment. Yesterday I used some of this data to put together a short video for my ANTH 222 course (Introduction to Ecological and Evolutionary Anthropology). We are currently talking about biotic and abiotic factors and processes that influence evolution and shape landscapes. Given that every term students ask me to talk more about my research, I thought the human-elephant conflict a good example. Competition for food, water, & space resources, population growth, keystone species, fire, shifting climatic factors, national & international laws, cooperation, etc. I’ve posted it below. Please note there are some graphic depictions of animal butchering if you are squeamish.
Posted on October 2, 2014, in anthropology, education, life, research and tagged adaptive capacity, anthropologist, elephant, environmental change, ethnography, fieldwork, food security, human-elephant conflict, Mozambique, research, resilience, visual anthropology, writing. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.